New fossils suggest mammals first appeared in the Late Triassic, 200 mya

Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

The fossilized remains of mouse-sized tree-dwelling animals suggest that mammals first appeared in the Late Triassic, more than 200 million years ago, researchers report in Nature September 10, rather than in the Jurassic, which was the previous theory.

Reference
Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals : Nature : Nature Publishing Group.

More Evidence that Earliest Dinosaurs had Feathers!

A report in Science suggests that, contrary to previous ideas of the evolution of feathered birds from dinosaurs with scales, perhaps even the earliest dinosaurs might have had a mixture of feathers and scales.

The authors of the report (led by Dr Pascal Godefroit of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels, Belgium) have found an neornithischian dinosaur from Siberia dating from the Jurassic (150 million years ago – mya). The creature, called Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus, was about 1m long, with a short snout, long hind legs, short arms, and five strong fingers.

This new data, when added to evidence of a different evolutionary line (the theropod group) in northeastern China dating from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (170 – 150 mya) which had a mixture of scales and feathers, suggests that perhaps even the earliest dinosaurs (from Middle Triassic 250 mya) had feathers.

The discovery adds weight to the theory which has prevailed for years, that the earliest dinosaurs were feathered and warm blooded. Feathers were initially used for insulation and signalling, only later being adapted for flying.

Whatever Happened to Global Governance? by Professor Ngaire Woods

On Sun 31 Aug 2014 at 17:00 on BBC Radio 4, will broadcast “Whatever Happened to Global Governance?” by Professor Ngaire Woods, Dean of the Blavatnik School of Government and Professor of Global Economic Governance at the University of Oxford. In fact, the program deals with economic global governance, which is not really the same as global governance, but it nevertheless raises interesting issues.

The following link might not work after the broadcast: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04f9rdr

The programme carries the following explanation:

The way that countries cooperate with each other is changing, and in surprising ways. The old powers – the United States, Britain, Europe – used to hold the reins of how global issues were dealt with. Professor Ngaire Woods examines how a new playing field is emerging where newcomers – such as Brazil, Russia, India and China – are creating their own solutions.

Is old-style global governance fragmenting? In 1944, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, was the birthplace of the familiar international organisations that keep countries talking to each other. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank were created, followed by the United Nations and what went on to be the World Trade Organisation (WTO). They were a huge achievement – but 70 years on, are they fit for purpose?

The world’s smaller economies, such as in Africa, used to have to go cap in hand to Washington DC for answers. Now they have many other options. Professor Woods speaks to former chief economists of the World Bank, Joseph Stiglitz and Justin Yifu Lin, and former WTO director, Pascal Lamy, to find out why.

So as the old system fragments, how will the world solve its big issues, such as poverty, climate change, immigration and pandemics? And how will Britain negotiate this new terrain?

Producer: Dominic Byrne
A Blakeway production for BBC Radio 4.

Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI)

The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is an independent, non-partisan think tank focused on international governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. Conducting an active agenda of research, events and publications, CIGI’s interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy, business and academic communities around the world.

CIGI’s research programs focus on: global economy, global security & politics and international law. Founded in 2001, CIGI collaborates with several research affiliates and gratefully acknowledges support from a number of funding partners, in particular the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario.

Evidence found for massive stars in the young universe

Astronomers have found evidence for the existence of very large stars in the early Universe. Weighing hundreds of times more than the mass of the Sun, such stars would have been the first to fuse hydrogen and helium into heavier elements. They left a chemical signature that the researchers have now found in an ancient, second-generation star.

Little is known about the Universe’s first stars, which would have formed out of clouds of hydrogen, helium and a tiny amount of lithium in the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang.

Simulations have long predicted that some of this first batch of stars were enormous. Such large stars only exist for a very short time before they exploded in supernovae, creating the first heavy elements from which later galaxies and stars evolved.

But no traces of their existence have previously been found. Now Professor Wako Aoki at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan in Tokyo and his colleagues have used a technique called stellar archaeology to identify the first traces of such a star, preserved in the chemical make-up of its ancient long-lasting daughter.

The daughter star has a very low abundance of lighter elements, such as carbon, magnesium and calcium, relative to heavier elements such as iron. The most likely explanation for this signature is a type of explosion of the parent known as a “pair-instability supernova”

This type of supernova occurs when the temperature in the star’s core becomes so high that pairs of photons turn into pairs of electrons and positrons. The resulting fall in outward pressure causes the star to collapse dramatically, setting off a huge thermonuclear explosion. This would tear the whole star apart and produce the high levels of iron relative to lighter elements that Aoki’s team found.

Lower-energy supernovae, which result when normal, lower mass stars explode, create very little iron compared to lighter elements because, although the outer layer is blown away, heavier elements get sucked back into the core, forming a black hole. Most of the iron in the universe was created not in supernovae but in red giants, the phase at the end of most stars’ lives.

References

http://www.nature.com/news/imprint-of-primordial-monster-star-found-1.15751

Hallucigenia finally comes down to find it’s nearest relative

photo of a Hallucigenia

A specimen photo of a Hallucigenia sparsa from the collections of the Department of Paleobiology at the National Museum of Natural History. Courtesy of Smithsonian Institution. Photo by C. Clark

Hallucigenia sparsa, a strange creature that walked the seas 500 million years ago, may have finally found its family.

With its dorsal spines and a head easily confused with its tail, this wormlike animal baffled scientists for nearly 40 years—largely because no living animals seemed to be related to it.

Velvet worm

Velvet worm

But Martin Smith, Junior Research Fellow, Department of Earth Science, and other researchers from the University of Cambridge have shown that Hallucigenia has something odd in common with today’s velvet worms.

Its claws, like velvet worms’ jaws, are made up of cuticle layers stacked inside one another, they report online this week in Nature. That means Hallucigenia is likely the velvet worm’s great-great-great-great-great-etc. grandmother.

Sources

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13576.html

http://sciencefriday.com/segment/08/22/2014/-evolutionary-misfit-finds-its-way-into-the-family-tree.html

http://news.sciencemag.org/sifter/2014/08/bizarre-walking-worm-finds-its-place-in-evolutionary-tree

Velvet worm image from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Velvet_worm_rotated,_mirror.png

The “Azolla Event” Helped Start the Current Glacial Period

50 million years ago during the Eocene, the Earth was much hotter than it is now, with levels of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere far higher than today. There was very little ice on the Earth at that time, and a tiny fresh-water plant called Azolla was able to flourish around the edges of the Arctic Ocean. Many scientists believe that there was so much Azolla drawing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere that it caused the climate to cool. This so-called “Azolla Event”, along with other factors such as mountain building and changes in ocean currents, led the start of the glacial period in which we are still living.

Photograph by Ingrid Taylar

Photograph by Ingrid Taylar

Azolla is a tiny fern which contains a symbiotic cyanobacterium within its leaves which fixes nitrogen so efficiently that the plant is able to double in mass every 24 hours. This can cause problems in rivers, but some people (for example the Azolla Foundation – see links below) think that it could be used both as a source of food for animals and as a way of sequestering carbon dioxide from today’s atmosphere and so helping to reduce global warming.

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eocene

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azolla

http://theazollafoundation.org/azolla/the-azolla-superorganism/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azolla_event

http://theazollafoundation.org/azolla/the-arctic-azolla-event-2/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0499llm

https://www.facebook.com/TheAzollaFoundation

New Music of the Spheres

Stars are huge balls of gas and they vibrate or oscillate. This oscillation can be observed by recording slight changes in the colour of the star. This can then be converted into sound, although the frequency is so low it has to be speeded up.

Every star makes a different noise, and this has inspired Sylvie Vauclair is an astrophysicist at the French Institute for Research in Astrophysics and Planetology, and Claude-Samuel Levine, a musician specialising in electronic music, to use the sound of the stars to compose music. They call it “Nouvelle Musique des Spheres”, The New Music of the Spheres. This takes it’s name from the Greek theory that the planets were attached to crystalline spheres which carried them around the Earth, and the mathematical relationships between these orbits was reminiscent of the relations which Pythagoras had discovered between musical notes.

Below you will find links which will let you listen to music composed from the sounds of stars.

References

Recording the Sounds of Stars

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/8114694/Stars-song-captured-by-scientists.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7687286.stm

Music Created from Star Sounds

http://www.cslevine.com/etoiles/youtube_spheres.htm

http://www.odilejacob.com/catalogue/art-and-literature/music-dance/music-of-the-spheres_9782738130365.php

Music of the Spheres in Greek Philosophy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musica_universalis

Making Predictions about Climate Change

The future of the world’s climate (long term temperature, rainfall etc) is clearly of importance to everyone. There is clear evidence that the climate has changed in the past, is rapidly changing now and will continue to change in the future, bringing more unstable weather (daily changes in temperature, rainfall etc), causing droughts, fires and storms, flooding low-lying places, and probably already causing wars and mass migrations of people.

The main international body making predictions about climate change is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which assesses the science related to climate change and provides policy-makers
with regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and
options for adaptation and mitigation.

The IPCC does not do it’s own research. Instead it co-ordinates research from scientists across the world, bringing their results together to make their conclusions.

Another organistion which supports research aimed at understanding the Earth’s past environment in order to make predictions for the future is PAGES, a project within the University of Bern, Switzerland . They encourage international and interdisciplinary collaborations and seek to promote the involvement of scientists from developing countries in the global paleo-community discourse.

PAGES scope of interest includes the physical climate system, biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem processes, biodiversity, and human dimensions, on different time scales – Pleistocene, Holocene, last millennium and the recent past.